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Assignments
Forensic Science 806-110
Blackhawk Technical College
Janesville, Wisconsin
 

Instructor: Pat Wynes

 
     
  Chapter 1  
  Chapter 2  
  Chapters 3, 4, & 5  
  Chapter 6  
  Chapter 7  
  Chapter 8  
  Chapter 10  
  Chapter 11  
  Chapter 12  
  Chapters 13 & 14  
  Chapter 16  
  Chapter 17   
  Contact Pat  
     

     
Chapter 1
Crime Scene





Read Pages  5 – 25

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 24, 25

True or False  1, 2

Review Questions  1, 4

 

What is the primary task of the first officer at a crime scene?

 

Describe each of these steps in crime-scene processing, and discuss the significance of each:

            Securing the scene

            Note Taking

            Photography

            Sketching

            Searching

            Evidence Collection

 

What advantages do crime-scene sketches have over photos?

 

What is triangulation?  How many measurements are required to locate an object by triangulation?

 

What is baseline measurement, and how is it similar to triangulation?

 

What is the polar coordinate method of measurement, and how is it used?

 

What items should be photographed first at a crime scene?  How should the scene itself be photographed?

 

What are the five main search patterns, and for what types of crime scenes would each be best applied?

 

Define physical evidence.

 

What is the difference between a questioned sample and a known sample, and which type is also called a “control” sample?

 

What is the chain of custody, and why is it important?

 

What information should be included on an evidence submission form?

 

List the appropriate type of evidence container for packaging each of the following:

            paint chips

            carpet fibers

            a moist, bloody shirt

            an unknown clear liquid

            a leather glove with dried blood on its surface



 
 
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Chapter 2
Physical Evidence



 

Read Pages  31 – 53

Fill in the Blank  4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 20, 22, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31

True or False  1, 2, 3, 6

 

Which four crime labs deal primarily with evidence from suspected violations of federal law?

  

What six divisions are typically included in a standard crime lab?

  

List the seven functions of a forensic scientist in processing physical evidence.

  

Define corpus delicti and modus operandi.

 

Locard’s exchange principle is one of the most important concepts in forensic science.  What is Locard’s exchange principle, and why is it so important?

  

Compare identification analysis to comparison analysis.

 

Associative evidence can have class characteristics or individual characteristics (sometimes both).  What is the difference between these two types of characteristics?

 

Discuss some class characteristics and some individual characteristics you might find in a tool mark.

 

Discuss some class characteristics and some individual characteristics you might find in a shoe print.

 

Differentiate between active, passive, and transfer bloodstains.

 
 
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Chapters 3, 4, & 5
Trace Evidence



 

Read Pages  67 – 73, 90 – 103, 112 – 118

 

Fill in the Blank  Ch.3:16, 17, 19, 20, 24

                            Ch.4: 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37,

                                     38, 39

                            Ch.5 : 4, 5, 13

 

True or False  Ch.3: 5, 6

                         Ch.4: 2, 3, 4, 6

                         Ch.5: 2

 

Review Questions  Ch.4: 1, 4

                                 Ch.5: 1, 2

 

Refer to figure 3-4 on page 67.  Which soil horizon is the source of most dirt stuck to shoes and tires?  Which soil horizons would be the source of dirt on a shovel used to dig a grave?

  

What six common lab tests are used in soil comparison?

  

Discuss procedures used in sol collection from a crime scene, including how much to collect and how deep to scoop in collecting.

  

What are the three layers in a hair?  Which two layers are examined in species determination?

  

Why is a hair with a follicular tag more significant as evidence than one without this tag?

  

What two key questions must a forensic scientist answer when examining unknown hairs?

  

Can hairs be positively matched through microscopic analysis alone?

 

How are hairs collected from victims and suspects?  How many head hairs should be collected from each?  How many pubic hairs should be collected from each?

 

What is the most widely-used natural fiber?

 

Classify each of the following fibers as either natural or man-made:  cotton, nylon, polyester, rayon, silk, wool.

 

Outline proper procedure for collecting paint from a suspect vehicle in a hit-and-run.

 

What type of glass is used to make most windows and bottles?

 

What three materials are mixed with sand to make common soda-lime glass?

 

Pyrex is a common brand of borosilicate glass.  What is added to this glass to make it heat-resistant?

 

What is tempered glass used for?  What is unusual about the way tempered glass breaks?

 

How is laminated glass made?  Where is it commonly found?

 

How can you determine the entrance and exit sides of a bullet hole in glass? (fig. 5-4, p. 117)

 

How can you determine order of projectile impact in glass? (fig. 5-5, p. 118)

 

 
 
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Chapter 6
Fingerprints



 

Read Pages  134 – 154  

Fill in the Blank  1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

True or False  2, 3

Review Questions  1, 2, 3, 4

 

What is the difference between a plastic fingerprint, a patent fingerprint, and a latent fingerprint?  How does their collection differ?

 

Be able to identify the three fingerprint categories and the eight fingerprint patterns discussed in class (and on pages 139 – 140).

 

Be able to identify the following identification points and use these in fingerprint comparisons (see page 141):

                        Delta                           Bifurcation

                        Ridge Ending              Short Ridge

                        Lake                            Spur

                        Bridge                         Dot

 

Be able to calculate fingerprint classification values in the Primary Classification system.

 

What is AFIS, and how does it work?  Which two fingerprint identification points are used for making comparisons in AFIS?

 

How are fingerprints usually visualized on a hard, nonabsorbent surface?

 

How are ninhydrin and super glue used in fingerprint development?

 

What should be done immediately after finding and visualizing a fingerprint?

 
 
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Chapter 7
Questioned Documents



 

Read Pages  162 – 180

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30

True or False  1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Review Questions  1,3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

 

What is a questioned document?

 

What important features are typically examined in handwriting comparison? (see table 7.1, page 165)

 

Discuss collection of handwriting exemplars.  What five steps can minimize the possibility of a suspect deliberately altering their writings?

 

What is the difference between a requested and an unrequested writing?

 

What three techniques are commonly used to forge signatures?

 

What are obliterations and erasures?  What’s the difference between a mechanical erasure and a chemical erasure?

 

What is infrared luminescence used for in document examination?

 

What is an electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA) used for in document examination?

 

Which type of printer is easier to identify through forensic analysis, ink-jet or laser?

 

What chemical-analysis technique is most commonly used in ink analysis and comparison?

 

What are “trash marks” on a photocopied document, and why are they forensically significant?

 

Four printing techniques are described on page 175.  Name and describe the technique used to print US currency.

 

US currency contains a polyester thread woven into the paper.  What is printed on this thread, and what purpose does it serve?

 
 
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Chapter 8
Firearms



 

Read Pages  188 – 205

Fill in the Blank  1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26

True or False  1, 2, 3, 4

Review Question  1

 

What is rifling?  How is it done?

 

How is caliber determined?

 

What are lands and grooves, and what is their forensic value?

 

What are striations in a barrel, and what is their forensic value?

 

Which type of handgun is least likely to leave cartridge cases behind at a crime scene, a revolver or a semiautomatic?  Why?

 

Which type of handgun deposits more GSR on a shooters hand, a revolver or a semiautomatic?  Why?

 

Cordite and ballistite are mixed to produce the most common propellant used in firearm ammunition.  What is this propellant?

 

What two explosives are used to make cordite and ballistite?

 

What is the function of the primer in firearm ammunition?

 

Contrast internal ballistics, external ballistics, and terminal ballistics?

 

What is the first step an officer should take when recovering a firearm at a crime scene?

 

Discuss proper documentation of firearm condition in notes (pages 199 – 200).  What information should be included in these notes?

 

What features are examined to match recovered bullets to the gun from which they were fired?

 

What features are examined to match recovered cartridge cases to the gun from which they were fired?

 

What is IBIS, and what types of evidence is it used with?

 
 
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Chapter 10
Arson


 

Read pages  245 – 250, 254 – 263

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29

True or False  1, 2, 5

Review Question  3

 

What is an oxidation reaction?  Give an example of a slow oxidation, a fast oxidation, and an extremely fast oxidation.

 

What do we mean when we say a reaction is exothermic?

 

Why do fuel molecules need to be in a gaseous state in order to produce flame?

 

What is an accelerant?  List a few examples of common accelerants.

 

Define flammable range, lower explosive limit (LEL), and upper explosive limit (UEL).

 

List and describe the three stages of fire progression (pages 249 – 250).

 

Explain the “backwards theory” of fire investigation.  What are investigators trying to determine when using this theory?

 

How can burn holes in walls and ceilings be used to determine the direction in which a fire moved?

 

What is indicated by a V-shaped burn pattern?

 

What is indicated by an hourglass-shaped burn pattern?

 

What can investigators determine through examination of melted or discolored metals?

 

List three common indicators of arson.

 

How should fire debris be packaged?

 

Briefly describe the techniques of heated headspace sampling and passive headspace diffusion.

 
 
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Chapter 11
Drugs


 

Read pages  270 – 297  

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 32

True or False  2, 4, 6, 7

Review Question  1, 2, 3, 6, 7

 

How many drug categories (schedules) did the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 create?

 

What factors are considered in determining a drug’s classification schedule?

 

Which schedule contains drugs with no currently accepted medical use?

 

Which schedule are each of the following drugs classified in?

     Marijuana      Cocaine         Anabolic Steroids       LSD

     Morphine       Darvon         Oxycodone                 Heroin

     Valium           Amphetamines (most)

 

What is the between physical drug dependence and psychological drug dependence?

 

What effects do narcotics, hallucinogens, depressants, and stimulants have on people?

 

Classify each of the following drugs as a narcotic, hallucinogen, depressant, or stimulant:

  Morphine*    Marijuana(THC)    Alcohol(Ethanol)  Codeine*

  Oxycodone* Amphetamines*      Barbiturates*       LSD

  Cocaine*     “Date-Rape” drugs   MDMA(ecstasy) Heroin

 

For the drugs marked above with an asterisk*, list a common medical use.  Not all will be listed in your textbook.  You will need to look some up online.

 

What plant produces opium, and which two drugs are derived from opium?

 

What is the most widely-abused hallucinogen?

 

What are some of the dangers of inhalant abuse? 

 

Common field tests for drug ID are “color” tests.  Are these tests presumptive or confirmatory?  What drugs are identified with each of the following:  Duquenois-Levine, Marquis reagent, Scott test?

 

What are the two most common lab test for confirmatory drug ID?

 

What is CISPA and what is it used for?


 
 
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Chapter 12
Toxicology


 

Read pages  306 – 323

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 27, 32

True or False  2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10

Review Question  1, 2, 3, 4

 

Which body fluids and organs are collected during autopsy for toxicological analysis?

 

How does a toxicologist determine the way in which a poison entered the body?

 

What are human performance tests used for?

 

What factors influence the rate at which alcohol enters the bloodstream?

 

How is alcohol eliminated from the body?  What percent of alcohol consumed is oxidized in the liver?

 

How is BAC at the time of an accident estimated?

 

What is the lowest elimination rate for alcohol?  What is the highest elimination rate?

 

What device measures BAC by measuring absorption of infrared radiation by the breath?

 

 
 
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Chapters 13 & 14
Biological Fluids
and DNA


 

Read pages               330 – 341, 349 – 351, 358 – 363, 374 – 375,

                                   379 (Back at the Crime Lab)

Fill in the Blank         Page 354:  7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 27

                                    Pages 385 – 386:  3, 8, 10, 25

True or False             Page 355:  1, 5, 6

Review Questions      Page 355:  1, 3

 

What three questions must investigators answer when finding suspected blood at a crime scene?

 

Describe the Kastle-Meyer test.  Is this presumptive or confirmatory for blood?

 

What happens when luminol contacts blood?  Is this presumptive or confirmatory ID?

 

What serological test is used to determine if a blood sample is human or animal??

 

Most people are secretors.  What does this mean?

 

How many sperm cells are normally in a semen sample?  Do all semen samples contain sperm?

 

What is identified with the acid phosphatase and p30 tests?  Are these tests presumptive or confirmatory?

 

What samples are collected from victims of a sexual assault?  What is collected from a suspect in a sexual assault?  How is clothing from victims and suspects packaged?

 

How many chromosomes are in human cells?

 

Which chromosomes determine whether a person is male or female?

 

Which is more individual, nDNA or mtDNA?  Which one can be extracted from a hair shaft?

 

What do RFLP. PCR, and STR stand for?

 

Which technique is used to make copies of small DNA samples?

 

Which technique analyzes short, repeating DNA sequences?

 

What is CODIS and what is it used for?

 
 
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Chapter 16
Explosives


 

Read pages  416 – 429, 434 – 437  

Fill in the Blank  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29

True or False  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Review Question 1

 

Define explosion.

 

What is the difference between a detonation and a deflagration?

 

How are low explosives and high explosives different?

 

What is the difference between primary and secondary high explosives?  How are primary explosives commonly used?

 

Classify each of the following as either a low explosive, a primary high explosive, or a secondary low explosive:

            ANFO                                 Lead Styphnate

            Black Powder                      RDX

            HMX                                   Smokeless Powder

            Lead Azide                           TNT

 

How is a “McGyver Bomb” made, and what causes the blast with this type of bomb?

 

Why is TATP popular with terrorist groups?

 

What items are commonly used as initiators and detonators?  How are initiators and detonators used?

 

What is an IMS and what is it used for?

 

Your text states that the first step in lab analysis of bomb debris is a microscopic examination.  What is the forensic examiner looking for in the microscope?

 

What are taggants, and what information can investigators get from examining taggants?


 
 
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Chapter 17
WMD

 

Read pages                444 – 458

Fill in the Blank         1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 16, 17, 21, 22, 25,

                                    27, 28

True or False             1, 3, 5, 10, 12

Review Question        2, 3

 

What are the three main types of WMD?

 

List the six categories of chemical warfare agents (CWAs).

 

Classify each of the following chemical agents into the appropriate CWA category:

          Agent 15                                 Nitrogen Mustard

          Chlorine                                  Phosgene

          Hydrogen Cyanide                   Sarin

          LSD                                        Sulfur Mustard

          Mace                                       Tear Gas

 

What is the function of a point detector?

 

What is the function of a standoff detector?

 

Compare the penetrating power and speed of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

 

What four factors influence the degree of damage caused by radiation?

 

What is the function of a Geiger counter?

 

What are BWs?  What BW was sent through the US mail in the fall of 2011?

 

How does the CDC define bioterrorism?

 

How does the speed and reliability of BW detectors compare to that of CWA detectors?

 
 
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Contact Pat
pwynes@blackhawk.edu
 
     
© COPYRIGHT 2004 Pat Wynes All Rights Reserved.
Credits: This page designed by Pat Wynes
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Last Updated: January 29, 2013.